What is the History of Jupiter’s Exploration by Humans? A Brief Overview

Jupiter, the largest planet in our solar system, has fascinated humans for centuries. Its size and unique features make it a popular subject of study for astronomers and scientists. The history of Jupiter’s exploration by humans dates back to ancient times when it was first observed by the Babylonians and Greeks. However, it wasn’t until the invention of the telescope that humans were able to make detailed observations of the planet.

One of the most notable figures in the history of Jupiter’s exploration is Galileo Galilei. In 1610, he used a telescope to observe Jupiter and discovered its four largest moons, now known as the Galilean moons. This discovery challenged the prevailing belief that all celestial bodies revolved around the Earth, and marked a significant turning point in the history of astronomy. Since then, Jupiter has been visited by numerous spacecraft, orbiters, and probes, each contributing to our understanding of this gas giant.

Early Exploration

Pioneer 10

The exploration of Jupiter began with the arrival of Pioneer 10 into the Jovian system in 1973. Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to fly by Jupiter and the first to visit the outer planets. It was launched on March 2, 1972, and arrived at Jupiter on December 3, 1973.

The spacecraft made the closest approach to Jupiter on December 4, 1973, at a distance of 130,000 km from the planet’s cloud tops.

Pioneer 10 carried a variety of scientific instruments, including a magnetometer, a cosmic ray detector, and a charged particle detector.

The spacecraft also carried a camera that took the first close-up images of Jupiter, revealing the planet’s intricate cloud patterns and the presence of a radiation belt surrounding the planet.

Pioneer 11

The second spacecraft to visit Jupiter was Pioneer 11, which was launched on April 5, 1973, and arrived at Jupiter on December 2, 1974.

Like Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 carried a suite of scientific instruments, including a magnetometer, a cosmic ray detector, and a charged particle detector. The spacecraft also carried a camera that took additional images of Jupiter.

Pioneer 11 made a closer approach to Jupiter than Pioneer 10, flying to within 43,000 km of the planet’s cloud tops. The spacecraft also made the first flyby of Saturn, becoming the first spacecraft to visit two outer planets.

Both Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 provided valuable data about Jupiter’s magnetic field, radiation belts, and atmosphere. They also paved the way for future missions to the outer planets.

Voyager Missions

Voyager 1


Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977. It is the first human-made object to venture into interstellar space.

The primary mission of Voyager 1 was the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. On March 5, 1979, Voyager 1 successfully flew by Jupiter, providing the first detailed images of the planet and its moons. During its flyby, Voyager 1 discovered a thin ring around Jupiter and two new Jovian moons: Thebe and Metis.

After the Jupiter flyby, Voyager 1 continued its journey and flew by Saturn on November 12, 1980. At Saturn, Voyager 1 found five new moons and a new ring called the G-ring.

Also, Voyager 1 discovered that Saturn’s moon Titan has a thick atmosphere, which was unexpected.

Voyager 2

Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, just a few weeks before Voyager 1. Its primary mission was also the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn.

On July 9, 1979, Voyager 2 made its closest approach to Jupiter, flying within 350,000 miles of the planet’s cloud tops. During its flyby, Voyager 2 imaged the satellite Io and conducted a 10-hour volcano watch of the moon, confirming Voyager 1’s finding that it harbored active volcanoes.

After the Jupiter flyby, Voyager 2 continued its journey and flew by Saturn on August 26, 1981. At Saturn, Voyager 2 discovered that the moon Enceladus is geologically active and has a surface that is constantly renewed.

Voyager 2 also discovered that Saturn’s moon, Tethys, has a large canyon system that is 2,000 kilometers long and up to 100 kilometers wide.

Both Voyager spacecraft continued their journey beyond the outer planets and into the heliosheath, the outermost layer of the heliosphere where the solar wind meets the interstellar medium.

Voyager 1 entered interstellar space on November 5, 2018, and Voyager 2 followed on November 5, 2018. Scientists hope to learn more about this region from the data sent by the Voyager spacecraft through the Deep Space Network, or DSN.

Galileo Mission

The Galileo mission was a NASA spacecraft launched in 1989 to study Jupiter and its moons. It was named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, who discovered four of Jupiter’s largest moons in 1610.

The Galileo spacecraft was the first to orbit Jupiter and spent almost eight years studying the planet and its moons before intentionally crashing into Jupiter in 2003.

During its mission, the Galileo spacecraft made several important discoveries about Jupiter and its moons. It provided the first detailed maps of Jupiter’s major moons, including Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.

The mission also gave scientists the most detailed look yet at the structure of Jupiter’s magnetic field and radiation belts.

One of the most significant discoveries made by the Galileo spacecraft was evidence of a subsurface ocean on Europa, one of Jupiter’s moons.

This discovery has led to increased interest in the possibility of life on Europa and other icy moons in our solar system.

The Galileo mission was also an example of innovative problem-solving. The spacecraft encountered several technical problems during its mission, including a malfunctioning high-gain antenna and a stuck tape recorder.

However, engineers and scientists on the ground were able to develop creative solutions to keep the spacecraft operational and continue its mission.

New Horizons Mission

The New Horizons mission is a space exploration program launched by NASA in 2006 to study Pluto and its surrounding environment.

The spacecraft was designed to travel far beyond the orbit of Pluto and explore the Kuiper Belt, a region of icy bodies that lies beyond Neptune.

The mission was a significant milestone in the study of the outer solar system, as it was the first spacecraft to visit Pluto.

New Horizons was launched on January 19, 2006, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, and flew past Jupiter on February 28, 2007, for a gravitational boost on its long journey.

During the flyby, the spacecraft made observations of Jupiter and its moons and ring system. The mission’s primary objective was to study Pluto, its moons, and the Kuiper Belt objects.

After traveling for more than nine years, the spacecraft finally reached the Pluto system on July 14, 2015. During its flyby of Pluto, New Horizons captured detailed images and data of the dwarf planet and its moons, providing scientists with valuable insights into the formation and evolution of the outer solar system.

In addition to its successful flyby of Pluto, the New Horizons spacecraft also made a historic flyby of the Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69, also known as Arrokoth, on January 1, 2019.

This flyby marked the most distant exploration of any object in the solar system and provided scientists with new insights into the formation and evolution of the Kuiper Belt.

Juno Mission

In 2011, NASA launched the Juno spacecraft on a five-year journey to Jupiter. The mission’s goal was to probe beneath the planet’s dense clouds and answer questions about the origin and evolution of Jupiter, our solar system, and giant planets in general across the cosmos.

On July 4, 2016, the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter, becoming the first explorer to peer below the planet’s dense clouds to answer questions about the gas giant itself and the origins of our solar system. The spacecraft is solar-powered and spans the width of a basketball court. It makes long, looping orbits around Jupiter.

The Juno mission is still ongoing, and the spacecraft is now in an extended mission phase. The agency’s most distant planetary orbiter continues its investigation.

The mission’s goal is to understand the origin and evolution of Jupiter, look for a solid planetary core, map the magnetic field, measure water and ammonia in the deep atmosphere, and observe auroras.

Future Missions

There are several upcoming missions planned to explore Jupiter in the next few years. These missions aim to uncover more information about the planet’s atmosphere, magnetic field, and moons. Here are a few of the most notable missions:

  • Europa Clipper: This mission is set to launch in the 2020s and will explore Jupiter’s moon Europa. The mission will study the moon’s subsurface ocean and search for signs of life.
  • Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE): This mission, led by the European Space Agency, is set to launch in 2022. It will explore Jupiter’s icy moons, including Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
  • Juno: Although Juno’s primary mission ended in 2018, the spacecraft has been given a mission extension through September 2025. Juno will continue to study Jupiter’s atmosphere, magnetic field, and gravity field.

These missions will provide valuable insights into Jupiter and its moons, helping us to better understand the formation and evolution of our solar system.


Throughout history, humans have been fascinated by the mysteries of the universe, and Jupiter has been a particularly intriguing object of study.

From the first recorded observations by ancient astronomers to the latest data collected by NASA’s Juno spacecraft. Our understanding of this gas giant has evolved significantly over the centuries.

Thanks to the efforts of numerous space missions, including Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, and Juno. We have gained a wealth of knowledge about Jupiter’s composition, atmosphere, moons, and magnetic field. These missions have revealed a planet that is not only beautiful to behold but also scientifically fascinating.

As we continue to explore Jupiter and the rest of the solar system. We can expect to make even more discoveries that will deepen our understanding of the universe and our place in it.

With new technologies and innovative mission designs, we are poised to uncover even more secrets about this giant planet and the other celestial bodies that make up our solar system.

While there is still much to learn about Jupiter and the universe beyond, the history of our exploration of this planet is a testament to human curiosity, ingenuity, and perseverance.

By continuing to push the boundaries of space exploration, we can unlock the secrets of the cosmos and inspire future generations to pursue their own scientific discoveries.